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advanced_notions:emergence [2017/10/10 11:44]
jakobadmin [Researcher]
advanced_notions:emergence [2018/02/18 15:43] (current)
jakobadmin [Layman]
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 <tabbox Why is it interesting?> ​ <tabbox Why is it interesting?> ​
 +
 +<​blockquote>​I tend to assume that space-time and everything in it are in some sense emergent <​cite>​[[https://​www.quantamagazine.org/​edward-witten-ponders-the-nature-of-reality-20171128/​|Ed Witten]]</​cite></​blockquote> ​
 +
 +<​blockquote>​Symmetries are caused by things, not the cause of things <​cite>​p. 124 in "A different Universe"​ by R. Laughlin</​cite></​blockquote>​
  
 <​blockquote>​ <​blockquote>​
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 <tabbox Layman> ​ <tabbox Layman> ​
 +
 +<​blockquote>​[T]he concept of [emergence] has suffered in the sciences, and
 +especially, in physics, where all of the effort has been on describing the individual,
 +typically by breaking its description down to that of even smaller
 +individuals. While, without any doubt, this has been a useful endeavour,
 +it unfortunately has evolved in a rigid doctrine, leaving no space for anything
 +else. The most extreme manifestation of this dogma is the use of the
 +term ‘theory of everything’ in particle physics. [...]
 +
 +**Biology evolved from chopping up individual animals in laboratories,​ to
 +considering them in the context of other other animals and varying environments.
 +the result is the theory of evolution of species. Similarly, our
 +current (still very poor) understanding of the human brain makes it clear
 +that the human brain should not be studied as something in isolation, but
 +as something that fundamentally requires interaction with other brains [30].
 +In contemporary audio equipment, music consists of nothing but a strings
 +of zeros and ones. Instead, the entities that truly make up music are pitch,
 +sound, rhythm, chord progression,​ crescendo, and so on. And in particular,
 +music is not just a bag of these, since their intricate interaction is even
 +more important than these constituents themselves. The same is true for
 +film, where it isn’t even that clear what it is made up from, but it does
 +include such things as (easily replaceable) actors, decors, cameras, which all
 +are part of a soup stirred by a director. But again, in contemporary video
 +equipment, it is nothing but a string of zeros and ones.**
 +
 +**In fact, everything that goes on in pretty much all modern devices is
 +nothing but zeros and ones.** While it was Turing’s brilliance to realise that
 +this could in fact be done, and provided a foundation for the theory of
 +computability [38], this is in fact the only place where the zeros and ones are
 +truly meaningful, in the form of a Turing machine. Elsewhere, **it is nothing
 +but a (universal) representation,​ with no conceptual qualities regarding the subject matter.**
 +<​cite>​https://​arxiv.org/​abs/​1602.07618</​cite>​
 +</​blockquote>​
 +
 +
 <​blockquote>​ <​blockquote>​
 A much less controversial case of emergence of vacuum properties is the special relationship seen between the forces of electricity and nuclear decay on the one hand, and the masses of two special ele­mentary particles, called W and Z bosons, on the other.lo The physi­cal idea behind this relationship is that a superconducting fluid-more precisely, a multicomponent abstraction of such a fluid-pervades the universe and modi es the electric force to create the weak nuclear force, somewhat as a laboratory superconductor modi es electric forces. This fluid also has sloshing motions, which, like sound in a solid, are quantized and thus show up experimentally as particles.llThe corresponding sloshing motion o f the superconductor,​ called a plasmon, is seen routinely in electron microscope experiments.12 Not only are the W and Z bosons observed to exist, but their slight mass difference is exactly the value required by the observed differences between the nuclear and electric force strengths. Whether such a uid really exists is still somewhat controversial because the Higgs particle, a more sophisticated sloshing motion of the uid, has not yet been observed. The reason is almost certainly the technical limi­tations of existing accelerators,​ and most physicists expect the Higgs particle to be found soon. A much less controversial case of emergence of vacuum properties is the special relationship seen between the forces of electricity and nuclear decay on the one hand, and the masses of two special ele­mentary particles, called W and Z bosons, on the other.lo The physi­cal idea behind this relationship is that a superconducting fluid-more precisely, a multicomponent abstraction of such a fluid-pervades the universe and modi es the electric force to create the weak nuclear force, somewhat as a laboratory superconductor modi es electric forces. This fluid also has sloshing motions, which, like sound in a solid, are quantized and thus show up experimentally as particles.llThe corresponding sloshing motion o f the superconductor,​ called a plasmon, is seen routinely in electron microscope experiments.12 Not only are the W and Z bosons observed to exist, but their slight mass difference is exactly the value required by the observed differences between the nuclear and electric force strengths. Whether such a uid really exists is still somewhat controversial because the Higgs particle, a more sophisticated sloshing motion of the uid, has not yet been observed. The reason is almost certainly the technical limi­tations of existing accelerators,​ and most physicists expect the Higgs particle to be found soon.
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 </​blockquote>​ </​blockquote>​
  
-Great books on the topic are:+---- 
 + 
 +**Recommended Articles:** 
 + 
 + 
 +  * A great explanation of emergence for laymen is [[https://​www.ribbonfarm.com/​2015/​10/​29/​quasiparticles-and-the-miracle-of-emergence/​|Quasiparticles and the Miracle of Emergence]] by Brian Skinner 
 + 
 + 
 +**Recommended Books**
  
   * "A different Universe"​ by Robert Laughlin   * "A different Universe"​ by Robert Laughlin
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 <tabbox Student> ​ <tabbox Student> ​
  
-<note tip+ 
-In this section things should ​be explained by analogy and with pictures ​and, if necessary, some formulas. +<blockquote>”we call emergent behavior . . . the phenomena that owe their 
-</note+existence to interactions between many subunits, but whose existence cannot ​be deduced 
- +from a detailed knowledge of those subunits alone” 
 + 
 +<​cite>​ D. L. Cox and D. Pines. Complex Adaptive Matter: Emergent Phenomena in Materials. MRS Bulletin. 30425 (2005) </cite></​blockquote
 + 
 +Most important Essays: 
 + 
 +  *  ”More is Different” ​ P. W. Anderson 
 +  * "The Theory of Everything"​ by Laughlin and Pines 
 + 
 + 
 +See also  
 + 
 +  * https://​www.perimeterinstitute.ca/​videos/​emergent-gauge-fields-and-their-condensation-quantum-spin-liquids
 <tabbox Researcher> ​ <tabbox Researcher> ​
 <​blockquote>​ <​blockquote>​
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 <​cite>​pp. 113-114 IN A different Universe, by R. Laughlin </​cite></​blockquote>​ <​cite>​pp. 113-114 IN A different Universe, by R. Laughlin </​cite></​blockquote>​
  
---> Common Question 1# 
- 
-  
-<-- 
- 
---> Common Question 2# 
  
-  
-<-- 
  
   *  [[http://​agenda.albanova.se/​conferenceDisplay.py?​confId=575|Emergent Phenomena in Condensed Matter and Particle Physics]] by Witten   *  [[http://​agenda.albanova.se/​conferenceDisplay.py?​confId=575|Emergent Phenomena in Condensed Matter and Particle Physics]] by Witten
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   * [[https://​arxiv.org/​abs/​0707.4568|Emergent Quantum Mechanics and Emergent Symmetries]] by Gerard 't Hooft   * [[https://​arxiv.org/​abs/​0707.4568|Emergent Quantum Mechanics and Emergent Symmetries]] by Gerard 't Hooft
   * [[https://​www.youtube.com/​watch?​v=XM4rsPnlZyg|Duality and emergent gauge symmetry]] by Nathan Seiberg   * [[https://​www.youtube.com/​watch?​v=XM4rsPnlZyg|Duality and emergent gauge symmetry]] by Nathan Seiberg
-  * [[https://​arxiv.org/​abs/​0711.0273|The Emergence of Spacetime, or, Quantum Gravity on Your Desktop]] by R. Loll+  * [[https://​arxiv.org/​abs/​0711.0273|The Emergence of Spacetime, or, Quantum Gravity on Your Desktop]] by R. Loll and also "​[[https://​www.researchgate.net/​file.PostFileLoader.html?​id=53156f63d039b1f0128b45c6&​assetKey=AS%3A272469355630607%401441973164908|The self-organizing quantum universe]]"​ by J Ambjørn et. al. 
 +  * DYNAMICAL STABILITY OF LOCAL GAUGE SYMMETRY by D. FOERSTER 
 +  * [[http://​iopscience.iop.org/​article/​10.1088/​1742-6596/​361/​1/​012002/​pdf|Quantum Theory as an Emergent Phenomenon: Foundations and Phenomenology]] by Stephen L. Adler. (A draft of his book on this topic, can be found here: https://​arxiv.org/​abs/​hep-th/​0206120) 
 +  * [[https://​arxiv.org/​abs/​0805.2156|Causality as an emergent macroscopic phenomenon: The Lee-Wick O(N) model]] by Benjamin Grinstein, Donal O'​Connell,​ Mark B. Wise 
 +  * See http://​dao.mit.edu/​~wen/​pub/​cosmos.html for papers how gauge symmetries can emerge. 
 +  * [[https://​arxiv.org/​abs/​0809.0151|More Really is Different]] by Mile Gu et. al. 
   ​   ​
 <tabbox Examples> ​ <tabbox Examples> ​
advanced_notions/emergence.1507635889.txt.gz · Last modified: 2017/12/04 08:01 (external edit)